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The September 11 Digital Archive collects reports, studies, and white-papers written by a variety of organizations and institutions in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and the public reaction to them. The Archive gathers and presents these items to preserve the historical record. These materials do not necessarily reflect the opinions and views of the Archive or its staff.

There are currently 47 objects in this collection

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Title  Description  Full text 
After the Attacks: Protecting Borders and Liberties
     This Carnegie Endowment for International Peace report explores immigration issues in the wake of 9/11. The author argues, "to combat terrorism, the United States must strengthen the weak links in its immigration system. This effort should concentrate on prevention by improving visa screening and admission decisions, the country's first line of defense."

Al Qaeda, Military Commissions, and American Self-Defense
     This article by Ruth Wedgwood of the Political Science Quarterly critically examines the U.S. detainment of al Qaeda prisoners and others accused of visa violations or of being enemy combatants

Al-Qaeda's New Enemy
     Pakistan's turn against Al Qaeda makes it more vulnerable to terrorist attack.

American Backlash
     "SAALT, a national non-profit organization dedicated to fostering leadership and civic engagement among South Asian Americans, produced this exhaustive report documenting press coverage of bias incidents and violent hate crimes that occurred in the first week after the September 11th attacks. Email: Saalt@saalt.org Website: www.saalt.org

Characterization of the Dust/Smoke Aerosol that Settled East of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the Collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001
      [pdf document, Paul J. Lioy, et al., 2002] This report was written by Paul J. Lioy and 19 other scientists from Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers University and several other universities and research institutes. The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an airborne plume of dust and smoke impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Samples of this material were collected on September 16th and 17th 2001 in order to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of the materials which were present in the dust and smoke, and the absence or presence of contaminants which could affect human health. The results support the need to have the interior of residences, buildings, and their respective HVAC systems professionally cleaned to reduce long-term residential risks before rehabitation. Published in Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 110, Number 7, July 2002; full abstract at http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p703-714lioy/abstract.html

Dealing with Asbestos in the New York Cleanu
      [pdf document, International Union of Operating Engineers, 2001] A flyer for those involved in WTC cleanup as well as downtown residents, about protecting oneself against asbestos contamination. Produced by the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program. Email: hazmat@iuoeiettc.org Website: www.hazmat.org

Democracy, Human Rights and the War on Terrorism in Central Asia
     Testimony before the U. S. Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Central Asia and the Southern Caucasus.

Dislocating Alcyoneus: How to combat al-Qaeda and the new terrorism
     This memo outlines a strategy for defeating the new terrorism, located in networks such as al-Qaeda, which use terrorism in order to catalyze political-cultural polarization and mobilization.

     Study analyzing economic impact of 9/11 on New York City

Economic Impact of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks and Strategies for Economic Rebirth and Resurgence
     Testimony before the New York State Assembly Standing Committee on Economic Development and the Assembly Standing Committee on Small Business

From a British Labour Perspective: U.S. Afghanistan Policy
     Ann Clwyd presents British Labour Party perspectives into U.S. policy toward Afghanistan, the Israeli- Palestinian conflict, detention of enemy combatants, and related issues.

Hands on Hope: A Post-9/11 Survival Guide for Businesses and Employees
     CED sponsors a conference that examines the challenges that small businesses and entrepreneurs are facing in the post-9/11 economy.

Helping Handbook: Legal Resources for Families of Victims of the World Trade Center Disaster
     [pdf document, Association of the Bar of the City of New York, March 2002] Information about death certificates, unemployment and workers' compensation, taxes, immigration and other legal issues which might be faced by those affected by the WTC attacks. Produced by Morrison & Foerster LLP and the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. This Handbook is also available on the web at www.probono.net/september11 and www.mofo.com/about/pbhandbook/index.htm

Jet Fuel For Jihad
     The author explores what is driving hate and violence from the Middle East to the United States.

Listening to the City -- Final Report
     More than 600 concerned citizens, civic leaders and public officials from throughout the metropolitan region came together on February 7, 2002, for the first “Listening to the City” forum. This modern town hall meeting brought together participants from all walks of life—downtown residents and workers, families of victims and survivors, emergency and rescue workers, business and property owners, interested citizens and community leaders—all committed to charting a bold new vision for Lower Manhattan and honoring those who lost their lives on September 11.

Memorandum(Risk Assessment of Asbestos and other Toxic Substances
     [pdf document, Cate Jenkins, EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division, December 19, 2001] This memo describes wipe sampling for asbestos in Lower Manhattan, projects airborne levels from settled WTC dusts, and estimates increased cancer risks based on various WTC dust exposure scenarios.

National Ombudsman World Trade Center Hazardous Waste Case - Findings to Date, Recommendations to Date, and Second Round of Interrogatories
     [pdf document, Robert J. Martin, 2002] Memo from Robert J. Martin, National Ombudsman to to EPA Region II Administrator Jane M. Kenny on March 27, 2002. This report charges that the EPA had "abandoned its responsibilities for cleaning up buildings…that are contaminated or that are being re-contaminated, as a result of the uncontrolled chemical releases from the World Trade Center terrorist attack." While OSHA had concluded that all dust "must be presumed to be asbestos containing material" and must be cleaned up according to national standards, the report alleges that young children were still being exposed to airborne pollutants in homes and schools and that further efforts were needed to correct these conditions. The memo concludes with a series of questions about EPA actions to date.

Policy Statement
     Representatives from over 50 New York labor unions, community groups, research and advocacy organizations, and service providers offer guidelines to shape the redevelopment of the WTC site.

Post-9/11 Economic Windfalls
     The author -- an analyst with the Arms Trade Resource Center -- argues that President Bush's military budget increase and the war time "unity" on Capitol Hill have created an environment in which weapons makers can enjoy the best of both worlds-- continuing to make money on the weapons systems of the cold war while reaping the benefits of a war time bonanza of new defense contracts.

Preliminary Assessment of Asbestos Contamination of Lower Manhattan
      [pdf document Cate Jenkins, EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division, January 11, 2002] Topics include: asbestos in Manhattan compared to Libby Superfund site; why cleanup of WTC contamination is ineffective to date; advantages of cleanup under Superfund statute; summary risk assessment for WTC fallout.

Proposed Homeland Security Bill Deprives Security Personnel of Labor Rights
     Yamada argues that the proposed Homeland Security bill has the potential to strip federal security workers of crucial labor rights.

Responding to Chemical, Biological, or Nuclear Terrorism: The Indirect and Long-Term Health Effects May Present the Greatest Challenge
      [pdf document, Kenneth C. Hyams, Frances M. Murphy, Simon Wessely, 2002] This article, by .Kenneth C. Hyams and Frances M. Murphy of the Department of Veterans Affairs and Simon Wessely of Guy’s, King’s and St. Thomas’ School of Medicine and Institute of Psychiatry, London, was written prior to the September 2001 terrorist attacks. They note that the possibility of terrorists employing chemical, biological, or nuclear/ radiological (CBN) materials has been a concern since 1995 when sarin gas was dispersed in a Tokyo subway. These incidents can cause widespread confusion, fear, and psychological stress that have lasting effects on the health of affected communities and on a nation’s sense of well-being. To respond effectively to CBN attacks, a comprehensive strategy needs to be developed that includes not only emergency response, but also long-term health care, risk communication, research, and economic assistance. Organizing an effective response challenges government institutions because the issues involved—eligibility for health care, the effects of low-level exposure to toxic agents, stress-related illnesses, unlicensed therapeutics, financial compensation—are complex and controversial. In this revised version, the authors note that some of the concerns raised in the original manuscript about the acute health effects of a terrorist attack have come to pass, but they underestimated the impact that a terrorist attack would have, not only on the targeted community but also on the general population and its leaders. (Originally published in Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Vol. 27, No. 2, April 2002; Duke University Press)

Revised Version of White Paper on Lower Manhattan Air Quality
     [pdf document, U.S. Congressman Jerrold Nadler, April 12, 2002]. This report alleges that the EPA misled the public about the hazards of lower Manhattan's air quality and that testing of indoor air quality has been inadequate. It calls on the EPA to systematically and properly test and remediate all downtown buildings affected by the World Trade Center tragedy, using properly trained personnel and the best-available equipment and methods tied to genuine, established health-based standards.

Security Assistance After September 11
     The author argues that the post September 11th war on terrorism is providing the United States a new rationale for doling out military assistance.

September 11 th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001
     List of Victim Representatives Making Claims April 22, 2002

September 11, One Year Later: A World of Change
     While it is too soon for judgments of historic import, this special edition policy brief takes a look at the immediate effects that 9/11 has had on many fronts including the economy, the environment, globalization, and the U.S. relationship with Russia, China, Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. The brief also considers how future events and key policy choices will dictate the eventual significance of 9/11.

Special Investigative Audit #14: Environmental Data Trend Report, World Trade Center Disaster; Final Update - Trends for Data Collected 9/11/01 to 4/24/02 from Lower Manhattan
     [pdf document, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002; October, 2001 draft]. This document was prepared by IT Corporation, Las Vegas, Nevada for the EPA's Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. It contains an analysis of the data collected by a range of government agencies of the materials present it the dust cloud that blanketed lower Manhattan after the World Trade Center attacks. The concern was that some of those materials, including asbestos, airborne metals in dust, and particulate matter, had the potential to cause health problems to workers and residents if they were present in sufficiently high concentrations. For this analysis, a database was constructed of the many kinds of data collected by these agencies. The data was then evaluated and sorted by date, concentration, and location to seek trends. Some statistical correlations were calculated. Preliminary conclusions warned that the large number of substances found required prioritization, since few substances had been thoroughly evaluated. Background data from New York City, prior to September 11, would be useful in establishing the impact of the WTC event. Several very high concentrations of many toxic compounds were detected in the bulk dust samples and low correlations between compounds from different classes suggested many different sources of contamination. This report was one of the references noted in the EPA-sponsored working group document, "World Trade Center Indoor Air Assessment: "

Status of Air and Dust Asbestos Testing After WTC Collapse
     [pdf document, Cate Jenkins, EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division, March 11, 2002] This memorandum provides documentation of EPA Region 2's failure to address the aftermath of the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse with adequate environmental monitoring for asbestos.

Student Writing: September 11, 2001: Index
     Student Writing: September 11, 2001: Index [pdf document, Literacy Assistance Center, New York, Fall, 2002] When the Literacy Assistance Center invited students in ESOL programs throughout New York City to submit the writing they had done about the effects of the terrorist attacks of September 11, the response was overwhelming. More than 120 students from 29 programs submitted their work. The Literacy Assistance Center, www.lacnyc.org, is a not-for-profit organization that provides essential referral, training, information and technical assistance services to hundreds of adult and youth literacy programs in New York.

Student Writing: September 11, 2001:Stories
     Student Writing: September 11, 2001: Stories [pdf document, Literacy Assistance Center, New York, Fall, 2002] When the Literacy Assistance Center invited students in ESOL programs throughout New York City to submit the writing they had done about the effects of the terrorist attacks of September 11, the response was overwhelming. More than 120 students from 29 programs submitted their work. The Literacy Assistance Center, www.lacnyc.org, is a not-for-profit organization that provides essential referral, training, information and technical assistance services to hundreds of adult and youth literacy programs in New York.

Summary Report: Characterization of Particulate Found in Apartments After Destruction of the World Trade Center
      [pdf document, Eric J. Chatfield, Ph.D. and John R. Kominsky, M.Sc., CIH, CSP, CHMM, October 12, 2001] At the request of a informal committee of elected officials including U.S. Congressman Jerrold Nadler and Manhattan Borough President Virginia Fields, two environmental scientists, Eric J. Chatfield and John R. Kominsky took indoor dust and air samples near the WTC site in September, 2001. They found high levels of asbestos in many of the samples, and recommended that all WTC dust be treated as asbestos-contaminated unless tested and shown to be asbestos-free.

Testing Carpet, the Asbestos Reservoir
     [pdf document, Cate Jenkins, EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division, June 9, 2002] Recommendations for testing and treating carpets for asbestos.

The Abuses Of 9/11
     The author argues that the American public is being fed distortions and lies as selfish politics overtakes public service goals.

The Debate over National Insurance Against Terrorism
     In the wake of the attacks of September 11, commercial insurance is drying up for protection against acts of terror.

The NYC Literacy Community Responds to September 11
     The NYC Literacy Community Responds to September 11 [pdf document, Literacy Harvest, Literacy Assistance Center, New York, Fall 2002] A special issue of the Literacy Assistance Center in New York, with articles reflecting on how both students and teachers responded to the September 11 crisis. Articles cover the attack’s effects on immigrant communities, how to deal with crisis in a classroom setting, and helping students develop critical media skills. The Literacy Assistance Center, www.lacnyc.org, is a not-for-profit organization that provides essential referral, training, information and technical assistance services to hundreds of adult and youth literacy programs in New York.

The Pentagon's New Budget, New Strategy, and New War
     This article examines the new US military strategy as codified in the September 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review and practiced in the Afghan war. The report contrasts the new QDR with its 1997 predecessor, paying special attention to the Bush administration's "new concept of deterrence."

The Transition Meltdown and 9/11--Is There a Connection?
     The author asks, "The intelligence community could not connect the dots, was the lack of political appointees on the job a reason why?"

The War On Terrorism: Phase Two or Phase Ridiculous?
     With the expansion of the war on terrorism, U.S. troops are now in the Philippines. Is this a good idea or a bad plan?

To Blame Or Not To Blame
     The author asks, "What did Bush know before the attack on 9/11, what did he not know, what should he have known?"

Trading Liberty for Security after September 11
     Attacks of September 11 have made us feel vulnerable and many have argued that we need to sacrifice some liberties to purchase security. The author argues this is a false trade-off.

Transcript of the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis conference: Trauma and Change: Psychoanalysis in a Time of Crisis April 27, 2002
     Speakers: Vamik D. Vulkan, Charles R. Strozier Location: The Lighthouse 111 East 59 Street, New York, NY Introduction: Ronnie Greenberg, MSW

U.S. National Security: Illusions versus Realities
     A critical analysis of the new definitions of national security emerging from the war against terrorism. It argues that "as the government prosecutes a so-called war on terrorism without a visible enemy or a definable resolution, it behooves us to separate illusions from realities."

WAR,TERRORISM, AND AMERICA’S CLASSROOMS: Teaching in the Aftermath of the September 11th Tragedy; A Rethinking Schools Special Report
     Suggestions for teaching about September 11

Where the Hate Comes From
     The author asks,"Some radical Muslims dislike Americans -- we all know this -- but why?"

Why Gender Matters in Understanding September 11: Women, Militarism, and Violence
     An analysis of the role of gender in the September 11 attacks, and a call for the United States to "pay particular attention to women when attempting to counteract terrorism and encourage more peaceful and democratic political systems in Afghanistan and throughout the world."

World Trade Center Asbestos
     [pdf document, Cate Jenkins, EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division, December 3, 2001] A memorandum to Robert Dellinger, Director of EPA Hazardous Waste Identification Division. Reviews the recent history of EPA efforts on the WTC site to date, and recommends clean-up methods based on EPA national standards to protect citizens.

World Trade Center Indoor Air Assessment: Selecting Contaminants of Potential Concern and Setting Health-Based Benchmarks
     [pdf document, World Trade Center Indoor Air Taskforce Working Group, 2002] Once the outdoor recovery efforts were completed, health and environmental agencies turned their focus to the indoor environment. A Working Group comprised of staff from The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several other agencies developed a document with a list of pollutants -- Contaminants of Potential Concern (COPC) -- that could be of concern in the indoor environment in lower Manhattan, standards for safe levels for these contaminants and assessments of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods. It then requested the non-profit research organization, Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA), to conduct an independent scientific peer review of this work. This was the main document reviewed by TERA, and was presented at the TERA conference on these issues. Email: TERA@TERA.org